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Data Link Layer Technologies

IEEE - 802.3

In 1982 we establishet the modern ethernet frame

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        Copper (T = TwistedPari)
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10Base5 10Base2 10BaseT, 100BaseT, 1000BaseT



        Fiber (SX/LX/SR/LR = Type of Laser)
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1000Base-SX, 1000Base-LX, 10GBase-SR, 10GBase-LR

Wireless Ethernet

  • 802.11 (1997)
  • 802.11a (1999)
    • Uses 5GHz spectrum ONLY
    • Up to 54Mbps Bandwidth
    • Initially for enterprise use.
  • 802.11b (1999)
    • Uses 2.4GHz spectrum ONLY
    • Up to 11Mbps Bandwidth
    • Initially for SOHO use
  • 802.11g (2003)
    • Uses 2.4GHz spectrum ONLY
    • Up to 54Mbps Bandwidth
    • Enterprise / SOHO
  • 802.11n (2009)
    • Uses 2.4GHz and 5.0GHz Spectrum
    • Up to 300Mbps Bandwidth
    • Uses MIMO (Multiple In Multiple Out)
      • Using two n antennas to send multiple data back and forth
  • 802.11ac (2013)
    • Uses 5GHz spectrum ONLY
    • Up to 1.3Gbps Bandwidth
    • MIMO and beamforming
      • beamforming is a physics phenomenon. (it's somewhat same concepts as sub cardiode array)
  • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
  • DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Services Interface Specification)
  • Satellite internet

Serial Communication

  • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
    • Steadfast connection
    • Just not fast enough
  • HDLC (High Level Data Link Control)
    • Cisco Only
  • Frame Relay
    • Share PPP Connection